Incorporated in 1997, the Clear Creek Watershed Foundation (CCWF) is a non-profit organization dedicated to improving the ecological, aesthetic, recreational and economic conditions in the Clear Creek Watershed through comprehensive and cooperative efforts with watershed stakeholders. This includes, but is not limited to, improving the water quality of Clear Creek and its tributaries. With a varied “menu” of 60+ current and potential projects to facilitate and/or implement, we have our work cut out for us! We believe that promoting and coordinating these projectsranging from inactive mine remediation to outreach/education, from alternative energy production/use to water and wastewater management will make Clear Creek and its communities a sustainable watershed. Below is a synopsis of the history and evolution of this watershed effort.
A tipping point was reached in this watershed in the late 1980s when mine clean up was realized to be a worthy endeavor with benefits exceeding the cost. In 1983, because of mining-related water quality problems, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Study Area and placed it on the National Priority clean-up list (see also the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment's listing). In 1987 EPA completed an intense study of mine tunnel drainage, and many more studies followed. Thus began a large remediation effort on the active and inactive mine sites in the area, including an extensive network of water quality monitoring. Other government agencies, including Colorado Division of Reclamation, Mining and Safety/Abandoned Mine Section and USDA Forest Service Abandoned Mines Lands Program joined this effort.
Suffice it to say, the early relationship between the regulatory agencies and the local citizens was tense. The agencies had remediation technology and resources, while the locals had the historical knowledge of place. In order for clean-up efforts to be successful and for highly complex water quality issues to be addressed, a common ground had to be found.
Established in 1990, the Forum was an informal organization which transcended the boundaries of any one agency, community, industry, or organization within the watershed. The role of the Forum has been to bring people together from throughout the watershed to share knowledge, attitudes and values and thus develop cooperative water quality improvements strategies and projects. Not an easy task given the diversity of stakeholders and interests—ranging from mountain rural to urban, from agricultural and industrial to recreational and regulatory. Through numerous gatherings, stakeholder input on projects has been obtained and incorporated to define watershed priorities and establish project partners, thus creating a watershed-wide “culture of cooperation.” Once stakeholders began fixing things on the ground, sustainable improvements began to be seen—project by project.
Numerous Clear Creek Watershed Forums have since been organized and facilitated by the Forum. Several comprehensive documents highlighting and updating watershed-wide projects, including the 1997 State of the Clear Creek Watershed Report and the Healthy Watershed 2000 Report Card, have been prepared and published.
The Clear Creek Watershed Initiative (WIIN) started in 1991 as a joint project of Coors and the Center for Resource Management to provide leadership and coordination of ecological and recreational improvements in the Clear Creek Basin. With recognition of and respect for the fact that many individuals, communities, organizations and agencies had been focusing for years on the well-being of the complex Clear Creek Watershed, the WIIN program encouraged collaboration and cooperation among those groups. Their goal was to enhance, not duplicate, the resources and efforts that had already been dedicated to the basin. Long-term improvement programs focused on four critical areas: water quality, fish and wildlife, public utilization and stream flow augmentation.
During WIIN’s lifespan (1991 through 1995), numerous cooperative projects were accomplished, including: Clear Creek stream habitat restoration in Golden, Idaho Springs, Black Hawk and Adams County (near Clear Creek’s confluence with the South Platte River); hydrological analyses; Clear Creek greenway/bike path development; trash pick-up efforts; the publication of Clear Creek Canyon: Plan for the Future; several wetland construction projects; and preliminary studies of the “credit for clean-up.” Updates on Superfund work were provided, including the flurry of clean-up activity related to the passing of limited stakes gaming in the towns of Black Hawk and Central City. Outreach efforts included the Clear Creek Splash Festival and a quarterly newsletter highlighting project progress, ecological resources, recreational opportunities and historical features in the Clear Creek Watershed.
In the 1980s, nutrient growth and taste/odor issues in Standley Lake shifted water quality management from individual community concerns to a watershed-wide approach. In 1993, local upper Clear Creek entities and downstream users, assisted by the Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG), developed a plan to coordinate water quality issues relating primarily to nutrients in Clear Creek. These efforts resulted in the adoption of the Clear Creek Watershed Management Agreement. The Agreement, signed by 23 participants, included adoption of a narrative standard for Standley Lake, establishment of the Upper Clear Creek Watershed Association (UCCWA) for upstream entities and development of a cooperative watershed monitoring program. As the designated Section 208-management agency per the Clean Water Act, UCCWA is responsible for overseeing water quality and water resources issues through the Upper Clear Creek Watershed. The Agreement emphasizes a cooperative effort to address watershed improvement and requires an annual report to document these efforts. Projects have included development of entity-specific best management practices (BMPs) for non-point source pollution, an emergency call-down system, a wetlands inventory and a time-of-travel study.
In 1994, UCCWA received a Technical Assistance Grant from EPA and the Clear Creek Watershed Advisory Group (WAG) was formed. This group’s primary goal was to improve communications between the regulatory agencies and local citizens related to the Superfund work. The technical advisors interpreted trace metals monitoring data and provided review of EPA actions and explained this information to the public; in turn they relayed community concerns and recommendations back to the agencies. Several design and implementation improvements were made due to this dialogue. Numerous public workshops, open houses and presentations were conducted, and seven WAG Line newsletters were produced and distributed. Superfund progress during this time included the construction of the Argo Water Treatment Plant newsletters and clean-up of numerous mine waste piles including the Big Five Mine, the Little Bear Mine, and the Boodle Mill. In addition to preparing a final technical report, the WAG also maintained a Superfund repository and technical library at their Idaho Springs office.
Although the WAG ended in 2001, UCCWA continues work on water quality issues including Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs), development projects and waste water treatment. In 2004, UCCWA received a 319 grant to produce the Clear Creek Watershed Management Plan which provides a framework to respond to anticipated TMDLs in the upper basin. In 2006 UCCWA formed a Regional Wastewater Study Group to focus long-range planning to optimize wastewater treatment.
Dues-paying members include municipalities, counties, and dischargers primarily located in Clear Creek and Gilpin Counties. Monthly meetings are held at the Idaho Springs City Hall. Current UCCWA members are:
The Standley Lake Cities are: Northglenn, Thornton, and Westminster. The Tributary Basin Entities are: Jefferson County, Arvada and Golden.
Incorporated in 1997 as the “operating arm” of the Clear Creek Watershed Forum, the Clear Creek Watershed Foundation (CCWF) is a non-profit organization dedicated to improving the ecological, aesthetic, recreational and economic conditions in the Clear Creek Watershed through comprehensive efforts with watershed stakeholders. This includes, but is not limited to, improving the water quality of Clear Creek and its tributaries through mine remediation projects.
Cutting through the Colorado Mineral Belt, the upper portion of the Clear Creek Watershed is a “target-rich” environment full of inactive mines and naturally-occurring mineral sites. As a “Good Samaritan” entity authorized in a 2003 EPA Action Memo, CCWF has been conducting, facilitating and expediting cleanup of the 1,600 or so remaining inactive mine/mill sites not listed as priorities in the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Operating Units Record of Decision (ROD). This work supports remediation efforts in the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Study Area. CCWF has also been working under a United States Forest Service (USFS) Administrative Order on Consent. Remediation projects to date include: General Herkimer, Little Sixes, Minnesota Mine, McClellan Mill, Doctor Mine, Gem Site, Dibbens Mine, Sydney Mill and more. While CCWF is sometimes the project lead, much of this work is being accomplished through innovative partnerships, both public and private, including “orphanage” remediation strategies and the continued development/promotion of a “trading for credit” cleanup program. By remediating mining-related water quality problems and addressing associated public health, safety and welfare issues, CCWF and its partners are providing on-the-ground revitalization construction for the Clear Creek Watershed communities. Historically, this mine remediation work is perhaps what CCWF is best known for. Project partners have included: the Colorado Division of Reclamation, Mining and Safety (DRMS), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Phelps-Dodge/Henderson Operations, Coors, Clear Creek County, US Forest Service, Silver Plume, Idaho Springs, and numerous individuals.
Achieving sustainability is a serendipitous processthe more we do, the more we learn. For instance, we have learned that certain aspects of the Clean Water Act are an impediment to watershed remediation in that they make a Good Samaritan clean-up entity potentially liable for the site forever.
In addition to remediation work, CCWF now promotes and facilitates improved water quality through sustainable watershed management which integrates ecological, economic and social perspectives. In 2006, CCWF was awarded an EPA Region 8 Regional Priorities Grant to develop and implement the Sustainable Watershed Management Plan for Clear Creek Watershed. The Stakeholder and Technical Advisory Committees formed for the project are key in refining and implementing the plan. Based on stakeholder input, CCWF has developed eight groups to categorize the current list of watershed-based sustainability projects. Please click on PROJECTS tab for more details.
CCWF continues to cultivate the “culture of cooperation” with ongoing forums, tours, presentations, status documents, and the Watershed Exhibit. We continue to develop and implement our education component, with the goal of education the next generation on the wise use of their ecological inheritance. Please see the Outreach/Education section for more information.
To promote sustainable natural resource management throughout the Clear Creek Watershed and serve as a model for the arid mountain west.